USCG CABLE SHIP PEQUOT - UNITED STATES
USCG Pequot Between the Wars
These rare photos below show the Pequot before the onset of World War II.
During this period the ship installed and maintained telephone, telegraph, and
other communication cables along the entire Eastern seaboard of the United
States. These underwater cables linked lifeboat stations and coastal navigation
aids that received poor service from commercial telephone and telegraph
companies. Note the absence of the two 20mm guns on the ship’s fantail which
were installed after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the beginning of
U-boat attacks. (All photos courtesy US Coast Guard History Office).
84. This formal photo of the Pequot’s 49 member crew was probably taken around 1932. The white haired officer in the center of the front row between the two life preservers is believed to be the Pequot’s Commanding Officer, Chief Boatswain Nelson F. King, who was nearly 60 at the time and the 3rd most senior Chief Boatswain in the Coast Guard. On both sides of King are the ship’s non-commissioned Warrant Officers and Chief Petty Officers. In the second row we see two Senior Stewards in their combination caps and an ex-Life Saving Service member in his single breasted uniform coat. Here we can also clearly see evidence of the era in which the Pequot was built. The exterior wooden 5-panel doors and screen doors on the upper deck are more reminiscent of a beach cottage than a military ship. The use of water tight exterior doors became standard on all ships well after the Pequot was built. Click to enlarge; click again for a closer look. (Special thanks to Jim Flynn for providing details on this photo)
85. The Pequot tied up at Pier 8 East of the Boston Navy Yard. In the background is Building 104 which was demolished in 1940. If you Click the Image to see it enlarged, you can clearly see the full complement of air cowls that were used to direct outside air below decks. If you Click Again and zoom in, you can find the Union Jack flying off the bow. That flag of 48 stars against a blue field was only flown when the ship was not underway.
On a blustery day the Pequot crew is seen
off-loading telephone poles from the fantail with the American
Flag and the US Coast Guard Ensign snapping proudly in the wind
up on the ship’s masts.
Below: The following front page newspaper article from the March 4, 1931 St. Petersburg, Florida
Evening Independent provides some insight into the mission of the Pequot before World War II.
Note: a common early problem encountered when laying cables in
certain waters was a species
of marine borer, the teredo worm. These tiny creatures found their way through the cable armor
and dined on the jute insulation, exposing the conductor and causing earth faults.
LOADING THE PEQUOT WITH CABLE - 1930
In December of 1930 renowned Boston area photographer Leslie Jones documented the officers and crew of the Pequot loading cable at Constitution Wharf. These images have been archived under the title: “USS Pequot carrying 18 miles of submarine cable to be laid in southern waters.” The mission the ship was preparing for here was most likely to provide one of many communication links between Coast Guard Life Saving Stations and Lighthouses. Between World War I and World War II the Pequot laid more than 585 miles of submarine cable.
A Coast Guard officer oversees
the cable loading operation while a seaman manually turns the
large spool of communications cable up on the dock. The cable is
being played out off the spool to crewmen down on the fo’castle
deck who lower it by hand into the Pequot’s forward hold where
other crew coil into place. In the background we can see one of
the masts of the USS Constitution rising above a warehouse roof.
Based upon markings on the large cable spool we believe the crew was loading communications cable manufactured by the Simplex Wire and Cable Company which was one of the few manufacturers of undersea “submarine” cable during this period. During the 1920s and ‘30s Simplex routinely provided cable to the Coast Guard, Navy, and private telephone and telegraph companies. We see “Type 12” and what looks like “5010” stenciled on the side of the cable spool but we have been unable to locate a reference to that specific cable. It seems highly likely - based on Simplex's labelling convention - that it was "#12" or 12 gauge copper conductor (AWG 12 is 0.08" or 2 mm diameter). To complete an 18-mile cable run the Pequot would need to load aboard more than 95,000 feet of this thick heavy cable. Click Image to Enlarge.
These photos help us date the crew photo at the top of this page as the two Petty Officers we see here in the center of the photo are also be seen seated in the front row with the ship’s captain and other officers. Click Image to Enlarge. One of them with three “hash marks” on his sleeve indicating many years of service is seated 3rd from the left, and the taller officer is seated 5th from the right wearing a medal with his left hand on one of the Pequot’s life preservers.
A technical challenge of the times was manufacturing undersea cable that remained sealed and waterproof. The latex-like sap of the Southeast Asian gutta percha tree was used for early underwater cable insulation and waterproofing by Simplex and other manufacturers. But after several decades of aggressive harvesting the supply of gutta percha trees simply started to run out.
Rubber insulation was the next best solution, but that was problematic since proteins in the rubber absorbed moisture and in a relatively short period of time would break through the cable insulation and waterproof seal. A close-up examination of the cable being loaded in these photos leads us to believe this cable had a strong outer coating of jute windings that was sealed with tar then coated and dusted in "air-slaked lime" or soapstone to stop the cable winds from sticking together on the storage spool.
That lime coating gave the cable we see here its pale appearance. We can also clearly see lime dust covering the coat and pants of the sailor who is feeding cable down into the hold and on the side of the dark blue uniform coat of the officer standing next to him.
This 1940s aerial view of the Pequot’s fo’castle deck clearly shows the ship’s forward hold next to the large cable winch and the companionway entrance to the forward crew quarters below deck where cable was routinely loaded as shown in these 1930s photos. We can now see that little changed on the fo’castle deck between 1930 and the early 1940s.
A special thanks to Jerry Butler for locating these Leslie Jones images and to Bill Burns with the Atlantic Cable website for passing along the technical and historic details of the Simplex Wire and Cable Company.
The Pequot tied up in front of an early
Coast Guard Cutter. Seeing the forest of masts and rigging
behind the ship we realize that the Pequot was first in
service during the maritime era when ships were still
transitioning from sails to steam.
The tower of Boston’s Customs House and the masts
of USS Constitution can be seen in the background.
Pequot we see the 250 foot Coast Guard “Lake Class” cutter
Click the image above to see an enlargement.
|88. Gerald Joseph Murphy (see below) seated in the front of this group of sailors taken in the mid-1930s. His daughter believes this was taken while he was recovering from a service related injury which led to his 1938 Coast Guard discharge. (Geralyn Murphy Brousseau)|
Gerald Joseph Murphy from Gloucester,
Massachusetts joined the Coast Guard in 1935 at the age of 25. According to his
discharge papers he spent time aboard the CGC Cayuga and then served on
the Pequot before WWII as a Seaman 1st Class under the command of Chief
Boatswain C. Jensen. After he was discharged on March 21st 1938 he served
in the Merchant Marine during WWII.
His daughter Gerri writes that, “He always had wonderful stories and I could sit for hours listening to him tell about his travels around the world. He had one particularly funny story about a trip to south America where he got a monkey. During the war, he was on three different ships that were sunk, one in the waters near Iceland, where he nearly froze to death as he bobbed around for three days in that frigid water before being rescued by a Norwegian ship who heard their distress call.” After the war he moved to Waterbury, Connecticut where he married, raised a family, and worked as a machinist at the Anchor Fastener Company. Gerald J. Murphy passed away on March 12th 1980.
Pequot in Dry Dock - November 9th 1922.
Her twin screws were able to run forward or reverse independently. This made it possible to position the Pequot exactly where need to accurately place loop cables on the seafloor. Top speed was 12 knots with a maximum cruising radius of 1670 nautical miles. Details on the tricky business of spacing the loop cables can be found in the USN Harbor Defense Manual (below) on Pages 53 & 54.
|89b. We believe this vintage Liberty Pass for Pequot sailor “J.W. Hall” was issued well before World War II. When compared to the 1940s shore passes shown in our story of Storekeeper Bill Moore we see it is an older hand written version of Coast Guard Form #2518. We see it was not typed but filled out with a liquid ink pen, and that the return mail drop sends it to New York instead of the USCG District Office in Boston. (Provided by the John Hall family with special thanks to Mary Ellen Getchel of Three Frogs Collectibles LLC)|
89c. We can see from the Pequot’s official Record of Operations that between World War I and World War II she conducted cable laying and repair work while being stationed out of New London, Connecticut, the Norfolk Virginia Coast Guard Depot, and the Coast Guard base in Boston, Massachusetts. Just prior to the outbreak of WWII she served temporary duty with the Atlantic Fleet. (US Coast Guard History Office)
Every effort has been made to trace and acknowledge copyright. The authors would welcome any information from people who believe their photos have been used without due credit. Some photos have been retouched to remove imperfections but otherwise they are true to the original.
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about the Pequot or her Escort Ships, please contact
Chip Calamaio firstname.lastname@example.org, 938 E. San Miguel Avenue, Phoenix, 85014, Arizona, USA. (H) 602-279-4505.
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Research and design: Chip Calamaio and Richard Walding